1. Introduction. Pakistan was created as part of “ Two Nation” theory in 1947 as a Muslim state.  Pakistan was expecting Jammu and Kashmir, with 65% of Muslim population, to join Pakistan. As the expectation did not materialize, Pakistan was furious and sent Northern Tribals along with Pakistan irregulars for invasion of Kashmir.
  2. Accession to India. Initially, Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, neither joined India nor Pakistan. But once the Pakistan’s threat was there, he decided to accede to India. He signed the document “Instrument of Accession” on 26 Oct 47 and merged with India.
  3. Dispatch of Indian Army. The first contingent of Indian Army landed in Srinagar on 27 Oct 47. The army was rushed towards Baramula and other areas where Pakistan was trying to advance As the size of army was small due to the partition of the army also, it was not making any decisive outcome.
  4. UN’s Intervention. The PM Jawahar Lal Nehru took the Kashmir Issue to UN Security Council. The Security council passed the following resolution in 1949.
  5. Cease fire between India and Pakistan forces.
  6. Withdrawal of Pakistani Forces from Occupied territory.
  7. India to reduce forces in J & K.
  8. India to conduct plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir.
  9. The UN troops were positioned to monitor cease fire between two forces. The Pakistan’s troops did not withdraw from the occupied territory.
  10. Pakistan also tried its hand on Rann of kutch in April 1965. India responded and stalled Pakistan’s advance. Kutch Agreement was signed in Jul 1965, retaining status quo in the area. Mr Harold Wilson, the then British PM, played an important role to resolve the crisis.
  11. Pakistan attacked India on 3 Sep 1965. The war lasted for 22 days. The Soviet Union broked a cease fire. Tashkent Declaration was signed between Mr Lal Bahadur Shastri, The then PM of India and Mr Yaha Khan, the then President of Pakistan.
  12. 1971—Liberation of Bangladesh. Pakistan was divided in two parts, East Pakistan, now Bangladesh and West Pakistan, now Pakistan. The majority of Bengalis of East Pakistan were not happy under Punjabi Muslim of the West Pakistan. The turning point was the denial or Prime Ministership to Sheikh Mujib—ur-Rehman of join Pakistan as his party had won the majority in Parliament. As the Bengali refugees poured in, India liberated Bangladesh on 16 Dec 1971. The Pakistanis surrendered to Indian Army
  13. Shimla Agreement. This was signed between Mrs INDIRA GANDHI and ZULF-ALI-KAR-BHUTTO. Important points were:-
  14. All outstanding disputes between Indian and Pakistan to be solved bilaterally ie no third party intervention.
  15. All 95.000 prisoners of war to be returned to Pak.
  16. Line of Control (LoC) was marked after exchanging the map of both the countries, showing the location of both the forces.
  17. 1984—Occupation of Siachin. As th LoC was not marked and merely agreed that it extended ‘Northwards’ from Grid References NJ 9842, Indian forces occupied saltaro Ridge on Siachin as it was a dominating feature. The Pakistan objected to the occupation saying it violated Shimla Agreement.